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A Qualitative Analysis of Why Community College Students Are Taking
Social Science Courses Online at a Rural Community College in the Midwest

Jeffrey T. Schulz
Central Community College

Allen Francis Ketcham
Texas A&M University

     This qualitative research examines the unique reasons why rural community college students living in a Midwestern city, in the middle of America, are taking social science classes online. This research examines how 118 community college students responded to a series of 13 demographic questions and 10 open-ended questions. For the purposes of this study, only the first five open-ended questions will be addressed. The next study will address the other five open-ended questions. This study is the culmination of a year and a half long data collection process that occurred during the fall semester of 2010, spring semester of 2011, summer semester of 2011, and fall semester of 2011 in which students had the option to answer questions related to social science classes online. The social science online courses in which the survey was distributed included the following courses: Introduction to Sociology, Social Problems, and Gerontology. The purpose of the study is to go beyond surface-level explanations as to why rural community college students in a 25 county area in Nebraska are taking social science classes online.

Review of Literature
     According to the 2009 Current Population Survey, exactly 77.0% of people living in the state of Nebraska have home access to the Internet (U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, October 2009). There has been much discussion about the “digital divide” in this country between urban community colleges having more “connectivity” than their rural community college counterparts (Leist and Travis 2010 and Cejada 2007). Leist and Travis (2010) posit “With many colleges located in sparsely populated locales, the service areas of these institutions typically span multiple counties and thousands of square miles.” This accurately depicts our community college discussed in this paper.

   During the 2010-2011 academic year, this college served a total of 24,679 students (13,419 were full-time credit seeking students); 84% or 20,621 of those students were in the primary 25 county area the college serves in rural Nebraska (Enrollment Report, Central Community College, 2010-2011). The three most popular majors on campus as of the 2010 and 2011 academic year were Business Administration, Nursing, and Health Information Management Services (Enrollment Report, Central Community College, 2010-2011). This college has three primary campuses and several smaller satellite campus sites in the 25 county region it serves.

     The average age for a full-time student at this community college is 24 and for part-time students it’s 31 (Enrollment Report, Central Community College, 2010-2011). The racial breakdown for credit students is the following: For Whites (82.3%); Blacks (1.1%); Native American (0.03%); Asian and Pacific Islander (0.08%); Hispanic/Latino (8.71%); Hawaiian/Islander (0.0156%); and for students reporting to be of two or more races (0.054%) (Enrollment Report, Central Community College, 2010-2011). The gender breakdown for credit students is the following: Males comprise 43.8% and females comprise 56.2% of the population (Enrollment Report, Central Community College, 2010-2011).

     Cejada (2010) reports “community colleges that offered courses over the Internet in 2000 have dramatically increased the number of online offerings and dramatically decreased the number of offerings using other technologies” (pp. 7-8). Additionally, Cejada (2010) reports that there are eight subject areas offered online in which the greatest growth has occurred: business, liberal arts and sciences, general studies and humanities; health professions and related sciences; education; computer and information sciences; social sciences and history; psychology; and engineering. Recent research has suggested that there are numerous barriers that rural community college students who take courses online must overcome (Rao et al 2011; Mihalynuk et al 2007; Cejada 2007; Cejada 2010; and Hyllegard et al 2008) compared to their more urban community college student counterparts. For example, Murphey (2006) states:

     “Rural areas have a bit more of a challenge in areas of resources, but have advantages in areas of flexibility. Qualified people such as administration, faculty, and staff can set the tone for online classes. Technical support, library services, and student services work in unison to provide online students with services that are comparable to those available to on-site students. A clear cut vision of how rural community colleges can utilize online student services makes it possible for personnel such as members of an online committee and support staff for online student services to disseminate information and use helpful aids to online students. People, processes, and technology all blend together to form an effective, cohesive setting for an online student, and rural institutions will have to get creative to provide these necessary services to their rural online college students” (p. 3).

     Another similar finding of Murphey (2006) that coincides with the findings in this paper is that most of the rural community college students in the United States are not of traditional college age (18-24) and most are older, non-traditional female college students who are attempting to obtain more education to enhance job skills or increase hiring or promotion potential. Other barriers rural community college students may endure include: limited access to telecommunications including the internet, deeply rooted social structures which sometimes hinders online courses, and maintaining a balance between rural environment and development pressures (Mihalynuk, 2007).

     However, some of the more recent studies are also showing that rural community colleges that offer online classes are actually closing in on previous barriers that were once thought to hinder rural community college students from taking online courses (Hale 2007; Ouzts 2006; Seok et al 2010; and Dobbs et al 2009). Many of the findings in these articles will be found relevant to this study.

     One of the major findings of Shieh et al. (2008) is that the online instructor’s engagement level and facilitation skills are considered crucial factors to ensuring effective implementation of the online course. Ouzts (2006) also states that when students have a high sense of community while taking online courses, they have a much higher rate of success in completing online courses. She mentions five characteristics that students report as making them feel as though they had a high sense of community in their online courses: 1. Good teacher characteristics; 2. Strong student connection related to assignments; 3. A change in personal perspective; 4. Quality learning; and 5. Satisfaction. (Ouzts 2006).

Why take online classes?

Why take an online class at a community college?
     According to Hale (2007), there are numerous reasons why community college students may prefer to take classes online. The first reason is the obvious, cost. Community colleges have lower per-unit fees than four year colleges and universities. Second, personal reasons such as money for textbooks, transportation, and day care may be reasons as well. Online learning can ease some of these problems by eliminating the need to be on campus and can provide more flexible options for students achieving their educational goals (Hale, 2007). Yet with this option of greater convenience and flexibility, online education has still been beset by unusually high attrition rates (Hyllegard et al 2008). Other reasons students reported for taking classes online according to Dobbs (2009) included: job-related responsibilities, family responsibilities, the university/college was located too far from the student’s home, being able to work at one’s own pace, and health-related reasons.

     The most recent literature suggests college students overall perceptions of online classes is positive. Other reasons for genuinely liking online classes in addition to the reasons stated above include: saving time, scheduling, and being able to take more classes; students believed that learning activities/assignments promoted better learning; and both female instructors and students had significantly higher perceptions of the online classes than males (Seok et al., 2010). In another study by Dobbs et al. (2009), they found that 87% of students reported they were either somewhat or very satisfied with the online courses they were taking. The study also suggests students found the online courses to be either slightly more demanding or at least as equally demanding as a traditional lecture course. Another significant finding by Dobbs et al. (2009) is that over half the students in both his research with colleagues and other subsequent studies cited within his research, reported that students actually felt they learned more in the online class than in a lecture class. In both his research and the numerous studies he cited, the following was found: Students tend to read more for their online course, students perceived online courses were more difficult, online courses were perceived to be of higher quality than lecture classes, and students reported spending more time per week on their online courses than in their lecture courses (Dobbs et al., 2009).

     Most of the negative comments related to online classes were a result of technological problems, a lack of a sense of belonging in the class, a feeling of isolation, problems with discussions online, and the instructor never seemed to be present when students needed him or her. Also included: poor teacher characteristics, low student-to-student connection, poor quality of learning, overall dissatisfaction with the course, lack of feedback on assignments, lack of understanding expectations for the course, some teacher responses sometimes did not make sense or apply to the discussion, and a lack of connection with the instructor (Dobbs et al. 2009; Seok et al. 2010; Hyllegard et al. 2008; Ouzts 2006).

Research Questions
     The purpose of this study is twofold. First, we wish to go beyond the surface level explanations of why students prefer to take social science classes online. Second, we are trying to explain why rural community college students in Nebraska are taking online classes. Since our research focuses primarily on our college, this study is essentially a case study.

     We asked the students to answer a series of 13 demographic questions, then 10 open-ended questions. The first five open-ended questions asked the students why they were taking an online social science course, how it might fit into their major, how an online course would benefit them, if the student felt the online classes in the social sciences were easier than lecture classes, and if the student felt that online courses in any subject were easier to take online.

     Specifically, the five open-ended questions included: 1. Why are you taking a social science course online here at Central Community College?; 2. How is taking a social science course online going to benefit you in your major; 3. How is taking a social science course online going to benefit you in your career?; 4. Do you believe taking social science courses online are easier or harder than taking them as a lecture class?; and 5. Do you believe taking a course online in any college subject is easier or harder than taking a lecture class in that subject? What has been your experience with this?

     The second set of five questions were not addressed in this study and will be addressed in another study. Those questions relate more to comparing our online courses at our college with online classes taken at other colleges; therefore it was not relevant to report that data in this paper.

     The 23-item survey instrument was distributed to students in both 100 and 200 level online social science classes at a rural midwestern community college. Participation was voluntary with informed consent. All online courses on all of the campuses at this rural community college are capped at 25 students per class. The majority of the respondents were female (86.3 percent) and males represented (13.7 percent). A majority of the respondents (89.7 percent) identified themselves as White/Caucasian, with 4.3% identifying as Hispanic/Latino; another 4.3% identifying as Asian American/Pacific Islander; 0% reporting in as African American, and there was only one respondent for both Native American/American Eskimo; one reported as Bahamian, and one respondent chose not to answer the question. The following is a breakdown of the age distribution of the participants in the survey: Students 17 years of age or younger (10.2%); 18-23 (44.1%); 24-30 (19.5%); 31-40 (17.8%); age 40 and over (8.5%).

     In terms of political preference, students responded in the following way: Conservative (32.2%); Liberal (17.8%); and Moderate (39.8%); Independent (3.4%); Undecided (3.4%); Radical (0.08%); and Undecided (3.4%). In terms of income, students reported the following: Less than $10,000 (0.08%); $10,000-$24,999 (18.6%); $25,000-$49,999 (27.1%); $50,000-$74,999 (34.7%); $75,000-$99,999 (8.5%); $100,000 or more (4.2%); No Response (6.8%).

     Since we have students from a variety of individual backgrounds taking courses for various reasons, i.e., to transfer to a four year college; build their skill set; take extra classes as mandatory procedure for their jobs, re-invent themselves in a new career and etc., we felt it necessary to ask what their highest level of educational attainment was at the time of their completion of the survey. The following was reported by the students: Still in high school or only a high school education (16.9%); Freshman (29.7%); Sophomore (33.9%); Junior (10.2%); Senior (8.5%); Graduate Work or beyond (0%); Not Answered (1.7%).

     Since many of the students at this community college are first-time college students, we thought it was necessary to report what their parents’ highest level of educational attainment was as reported by the students. For father’s highest level of educational attainment the following was reported by the students: 1. less than high school: 22 (18.6%); 2. high school graduate: 32 (27.1%); 3. some university/college/ or community college: 30 (25.4%); 4. community college graduate: 14 (11.9%); 5. university/college graduate: 17 (14.4%);6. some graduate school: 0 (0%); 7. graduate degree: 2 (1.7%); and 8. other professional degree: 1 (.085%).

     For the students’ mothers highest level of educational attainment the following was reported: 1. less than high school: 9 (7.6%); 2. high school graduate: 35 (29.7%); 3. some university/college/or community college: 21 (17.8%); 4. community college graduate: 16 (13.6%); 5. university/college graduate: 29 (24.6%); 6. some graduate school: 1 (.085%); 7. graduate degree: 7 (5.9%); and 8. other professional degree: 2 (1.7%).

     This is a case study which simply explores both the needs for and attitudes of taking online social science courses at a rural, Midwestern community college. Data for this study were collected from 118 web-based students from this particular community college in Nebraska who happened to be taking one of three different social science courses in any of the four semesters in which data were collected; therefore this study is exploratory in nature. The data were collected from students in the typical 25 county area that the community college serves in central and south central Nebraska and from a few counties outside of the serving area. There were also responses from students taking the course elsewhere. There was a response from a student in Colorado, a response from a student in Minnesota, and two students who were taking the online classes in Vietnam.

     Students in the web-based classes were given the opportunity to complete the survey. It was not mandatory. The students answered 13 demographic questions and then responded to five open-ended questions related to why they took a class online, and the second set of five questions asked if they planned to take another online class, if they planned on taking another online course at the local community college, and if they were going to take one at a four-year college or university.

     The following responses were the most popular ways students at this Midwestern community college answered the open-questions.

 Question #1: “Why are you taking a social science course online here at Central Community College?”

     Some of the more surface level, expected responses from online students included: that is was cheaper, very accessible, time manageable, convenient, it was challenging, required for major, required for Nursing, convenient for the work schedule, flexible, fit into my schedule, cheaper than taking the course at a four year university, can work at my own pace, course requirement to get into a Radiology program, and it transfers to a four year college or university.

     Some of the responses that were unique to our rural situation included: I have a one-year-old and daycare is too expensive, so the online course allows me to be home with my child;” “Online classes are easier for me and my husband’s schedules;” “I knew I would enjoy the course because it’s something I enjoy reading and studying;” “I do most of my homework for my online class when I go to bed;” “I couldn’t find a lecture time that fit my schedule;” “It’s convenient for me to participate in my own class at my own time;” “I enjoy working on the computer rather than being in the classroom;” “I live in Minnesota;” “ I took it in the summer to save time for farming and I was interested in the course even though it’s not a requirement;” “ I have more to time to learn;” “In the summer I had more time to take it;” “Being in a classroom would be impossible to manage.”

     Question #2: How is taking an online social science course going to benefit you in your major?

     Some of the more surface level, expected responses from online students included: There were only three negative responses in which individuals answered that the social science classes would not benefit them in their major. There were also three responses where students did not know if a social science class could benefit them in their major. The majority of respondents reported that an online social science course could benefit them in their major, especially when it comes to understanding various religious, ethnic, and racial groups. Further, many of the nursing majors stated that online social science courses would help them understand other groups’ customs, beliefs, behaviors, societies, and social problems. Some of the business majors stated that online sociology courses could benefit them because those courses deal with people and their behaviors. Yet other students reported that some background in social patterns helps them understand the patterns of today. Other popular responses alluded to understanding group dynamics, group behavior, how to adapt to a constantly changing society, learning about the dire poverty in other countries, and a wanting to learn how other people live.

     Some of the responses that were unique to our rural situation included: “Taking it online allows me to do other things besides being a full-time student,” “After I graduate, I don’t know if I will change jobs or stay with the same one but whichever I decide, every job will deal with people,” “I feel I learn more on my own rather than sitting in a classroom. I tend to not pay attention and as a result, do poorly in lectures,” “It has helped me with the understanding of my psychology courses,” and “It will show that I can be motivated to complete something on my own.”

     Question #3: How is taking a social science course online going to benefit you in your career?

     Some of the more surface level, expected responses from online students included: it would help them understand their patients’ or clients’ differing cultural backgrounds. Understanding various social issues was another reported reason by the students. Also, understanding peoples’ beliefs and values was seen as a benefit of taking an online social science course. Other responses included: “This class has given me a better understanding of society as a whole and the different types of people I will be in contact with.” A nursing major had this to say: “In nursing there are certain aspects of society that need to be understood. In different cultures they expect different behaviors. Learning about culture is nice because where we end up working, you just may have to work with patients of different backgrounds.” “I learned about the roles in life to personality! I loved it all!” “It teaches us not to be so judgmental. We should take in our culture and society as a whole!” Another finding in the data was that students across all majors conceded that a social science course gives insight into dealing with people on all levels, no matter what their major!

     Some of the students’ responses that were unique to our rural situation included:  “It has helped me take responsibility in getting work done on time.” “Taking a course online will help me in my career when I have to use a computer and submit documents online.” “It is teaching me how to be responsible and be aware of deadlines.” “It is teaching me about time management along with computer technology.” “Understanding others can help me advance.” “Taking a social science course online is going to benefit me in my career by helping me work with computers and deadlines.” “Having at least a basic understanding of sociology will help in any career where you deal with people.” “It helped me get used to using the Internet and doing my homework.” “It allows me to see how medical fits into social science, and to see it from a different point of view.” “By taking this course, my interaction in society and in the workplace will improve by a substantial margin, and therefore, this class will give me an edge in my career.”

     Question #4: Do you believe taking social science courses online are easier or harder than taking them as a lecture course?

     The results for this question were very mixed. Students at this community college definitely had strong opinions and made their case for whether or not online classes were more difficult or easier.

     Some of the more surface level, expected responses from online students included: “You can do it on your own time” reported one student. Also, stay-at-home parents thought they were easier in terms of flexibility; full-time workers who have to support their families and themselves seemed to prefer online courses; students stated that they liked the way online courses were set up as opposed to lecture classes; some students reported having less assignments; some believed they had more time to do their work; some students reported being able to work ahead; some students reported themselves as “independent learners” and like to work at their own pace (faster), so they can do other things in their personal life and with their time. Others prefer taking the online social science classes because they can sit down and focus on their studies and not have others distracting them.

     In the case of online social science courses being more difficult, the following things were reported: students reported missing out on the interaction that takes place in lecture classes with other students and the professors. Other responses alluded to the fact that students have to be more organized to complete their work on time. Also reported was that you have to be more responsible, and you have to check things yourself before turning them in to the professor. Motivation was another detriment mentioned by online social science students. Many of the respondents said that there was much more reading they had to do in their online social science course than in a social science lecture course. Knowing how to use the technology system a community college uses, i.e., Blackboard, Moodle is another common problem students reported. Learning time management skills was another problem students reported. Students also reported that a lot depended on being able to pick up the book, read it, and understand it without having someone in a classroom to help them with difficulties. Finding time to complete the required work in a course and time management were recurring challenges that online students reported.

     Some of the responses that were unique to our rural situation included: the major findings for this question were the reported number of self, independent learners who just didn’t feel they needed the classroom setting to be successful in the course. Some students expanded on how the classroom setting really holds them back from learning in a more fast-paced way. The other significant finding was the number of students who found both lecture and online courses easier or difficult in their own way. Many of the students would articulate in great depth the pros and cons of each mode of delivery in their response to this question.

     Question #5: Do you believe taking a course online in any college subject is easier or harder than taking a lecture class in that subject? What has been your experience with this?

   As with question #4 above, the results for this question were very mixed. Students at this community college definitely had strong opinions and made their case for whether or not the class was more difficult or easier.

     Some of the more surface level, expected responses from online students included: Surprisingly, the majority of the students preferred an online course in most subjects because the classes were easier, more flexible, allows students to work at their own pace, allows students to complete course requirements on their own time, and fosters a better learning environment for independent learners. However, what was discovered in this research was that many of the community college students didn’t believe Math classes or upper division level courses should ever be offered online.

     Some of the responses that were unique to our rural situation included: many students reported that they may be apprehensive to take upper-level courses online. Another common theme from students is they didn’t believe any Math classes should be offered online. Other issues the online students reported as a challenge included: not having face-to-face interaction with peers and instructors to discuss opinions and topics. Some online students also reported that being in a lecture may be advantageous over an online class in any subject because the professor or instructor may have a specialty area that he or she emphasizes in the classroom and the online students don’t benefit from the experience of the instructor or professor’s expertise in a particular subject. Also, in the lecture, there may be some points that may be omitted from class lecture, yet if the online class is guided by the book, the student may still have to know that material even though it’s not a requirement in the lecture class. A final theme that students discussed was technology. Many students reported that if the technology of the web course is designed well, it makes the course run more smoothly. Finally, students who lived far away from campus appreciated not having to drive long distances to take a class.

     This study focuses on a community college in a very rural area of the Great Plains. The successes of online students mentioned in this paper, while abundant, must be taken with some caution. This study only examined students taking social science courses online. The study did not take into consideration students taking online courses in other disciplines on campus. The majority of the respondents who participated in the survey were women, so there may be some gender bias to this study as well. Also, this community college doesn’t necessarily have the same Internet access problems that many other rural community colleges in the United States experience on a regular basis. As Cejada (2007) points out, “Rural community colleges must consider several issues that their urban and suburban counterparts don’t have to address. Two primary issues that can impede the success of rural community college students include: access to the Internet and access to broadband connection” (p. 94). These two items are not a problem at every rural community college, but certainly can be a detriment to those communities who don’t have local Internet companies or broadband service.

     Other issues that rural community college students must deal with according to Rao et. al (2011) when it comes to online learning include: feelings of isolation, too much reliance on textbook learning, difficulty accessing computers and Internet in their communities, and lack of cultural understanding on the part of instructors and professors in suburban and urban areas who teach students living in rural areas. For example, people from very poor cultures in rural communities may have unique circumstances they might be dealing with and the instructor or professor teaching the online course needs to be sensitive to his/her students’ environment.

Limitations and Weaknesses
     As mentioned previously, caution should be exercised when examining the results of the open-ended questions discovered in this research. First, there were many more women than men who participated in this survey which could cause some gender bias in the results of the study. Second, the majority of the student respondents who chose to participate were White, which could cause racial bias in the results of the study. Third, there were only three social science courses examined in this research. Perhaps future research on this topic could incorporate more social science classes in a similar study which would lead to more in-depth understanding of why rural community college students are taking social science classes online.

     The findings in our study are congruent with the findings in the literature. The majority of the 118 students taking social science courses online were very happy with their online experience. Perhaps these attitudes can be explained by findings in the literature. For example, according to Hale (2007), “Shy students who are often reluctant to speak out in a traditional classroom can excel in the virtual classroom because they feel more comfortable sharing their ideas online. Additionally, being online gives students the opportunity to reflect upon their answers before participating in discussions, which increases the likelihood that their comments will be focused and on target” (p. 3). Another similar finding from Hale’s (2007) research that is in line with our findings is that she reports student satisfaction surveys reveal that the most important reason for taking a distance education course is its convenience, followed by the need to fulfill requirements for an associate’s degree or transfer.

     Another positive finding from the literature that correlates with the findings in our study comes from Keim and Destinon (2008) which states how both students and instructor may indeed become better acquainted with one another because of the opportunity for greater communication that is clearer and that can be retained and reviewed. In other words, students get the “full effect” of an instructor’s presence by being in an online class. Students can read postings, reflect on content, take as much time as they need to learn the material they are studying, and take their time in composing their responses to assignments and discussion questions. It is suggested that these numerous methods of contact with the instructor enhance a web student’s sense of community in his or her class. In conclusion, Yen and Liu (2009) suggest that ultimately it is the students with higher learner autonomy who are more likely to complete a community college online course with higher final grades.


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Yen, C.J., Liu, S. (2009). Learner Autonomy as a Predictor of Course Success and Final Grades in Community College Online Courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 41(3). pp. 347-367.

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